Article 正式发布 Versions 1 Vol 28 (6) : 1150-1163 2019
Download
Research on Landscape Energy-Saving Integrated Water Curtain System;景观节能一体化水幕系统研究
: 2019 - 11 - 05
21 0 0
Abstract & Keywords
Abstract: Aiming at the serious heat and cold loss of the building glass curtain wall in the field of amusement and tourism, and the need to meet the landscape requirements of the building facade, this paper put forward the idea of integrating the shading and consumption reduction of glass curtain wall with the landscape requirements, that is, the water curtain was set outside the glass curtain wall to form a landscape energy-saving integrated water curtain wall system, while meeting the needs of landscape and shading. By establishing the numerical calculation model of the system, the corresponding relationship between the thickness of water film and the weakening of solar radiation intensity was revealed, as well as the influence of wind speed and wind direction on the nozzle exit angle and velocity selection; and the synergistic law of air flow rate and air temperature drop amplitude. The results showed that the water film thickness at 3‒4 cm can reduce the solar radiation by 65%‒80%. The temperature of the air layer between the water film and the curtain wall decreased as the air flow rate decreased, when the thickness of water film was 2 cm and the air velocity was 0.5‒1.5 m/s, the air temperature dropped to 2.47‒3.6°C. Finally, through the analysis of the actual project—ICE World & WATER Park, the system can reduce 66.8% of solar radiation, and reduce the air layer temperature by 3.9°C. 针对游乐与旅游领域建筑玻璃幕墙外围护结构冷热损失严重,以及该类建筑外立面需满足景观要求问题,提出将玻璃幕墙遮阳降耗与景观需求一体化考虑理念,即在玻璃幕墙外设置水幕,构成景观节能一体化水幕墙系统,同时满足景观与遮阳需求。通过建立该系统数值计算模型,揭示了水膜厚度与太阳辐射强度削弱的对应关系;风速及风向对喷嘴出口角度及速度选取的影响特性;以及空气流速与空气温降幅度的协同规律。研究结果表明,水膜厚度在0.03~0.04 m时能减少65~80 %的太阳辐射;水膜与幕墙间空气层温度随空气流速降低而降低,水膜厚度为0.02 m,空气流速为0.5~1.5 m/s时,空气温降为2.47~3.6 ℃。最后以实际工程––湘江欢乐城冰雪世界进行案例分析,该系统可以实现减弱66.8 %的太阳辐射量,使空气层温度降低3.9 ℃。
Keywords: glass curtain wall, integration of landscape and energy-saving, water curtain sunshade, evaporative cooling, natural resources
1. Introduction
Energy consumption and sustainable buildings have become the focus of the world today. In the rapidly developing social state, industrialization and urbanization are accelerating. As a developing country, China’s building energy consumption has grown rapidly. In 2016, China’s total building energy consumption was 899 million tons of standard coal, accounting for 20.62% of China’s total energy consumption. Especially, public buildings consume 346 million tons of standard coal, accounting for 38.53% of the total building energy consumption. From the perspective of energy intensity per unit area, the energy consumption of public buildings is the most energy-efficient one, and it has maintained a growth trend [1]. Such high energy consumption cannot depend on fossil fuels, so China’s energy consumption structure is in urgent need of transformation. WU Jianjun et al. [2] develop a multi-objective optimization model to predict the future trend of China power structure by 2035. It’s shown that the capacity of coal-fired power will be attained in the peak in 2025, In 2035, 92% of new investment comes from non-fossil energy. The economy and competitiveness of wind power and PV (Photovoltaic) power generation are continuously increasing. By 2020, the coal-fired power and the wind power in eastern of China will be parity firstly. In 2025, the cost of PV and wind power will be the same. Furthermore, the evaluation dimension of modern power system with clean, low-carbon, safety and high efficiency are innovatively constructed, and the index system target of 2035 is quantitatively analyzed and prospected.
The glass curtain wall is widely used in modern architecture due to its unique appearance, modernization and good lighting effect. However, since the thermal resistance of the glass curtain wall is lower than that of the traditional wall, the heat loss of the glass curtain wall is 5–6 times than that of the traditional wall in the same condition [3]. In addition, the current large-scale public building is pursuing aesthetics and good permeability. This has caused the window-wall ratio of some public buildings to reach the upper limit of 0.7 of the public building energy-saving specification. Such a high window-wall ratio makes the energy consumption of such large public buildings particularly prominent, which makes the need to improve the energy saving technology of large public buildings more urgent, especially for the energy-saving renovation of glass curtain walls. Therefore, in order to comply with the sustainable development concept of today’s society, it is very necessary to continuously improve the building energy- saving technology. At present, most of the energy-saving measures are mostly directed at the exterior walls of buildings. Therefore, it is more important to study the energy-saving measures of doors, windows and glass curtain walls.
At present, many scholars have conducted in-depth research on improving the thermal insulation properties of glass. Jian Qu et al. [4] prepared a water-soluble, single-layer, transparent heat-insulating coating, and studied the optical, thermal, electrical and other properties of coatings with different tin oxide content. The results show that the coating has a high visible light transmittance and infrared absorption rate; in addition, as the content of antimony tin oxide increases, both the visible light transmittance and the infrared transmittance decrease, but even if tin oxide with a mass fraction of 12% is incorporated, the visible light transmittance is 36%. It meets the lighting demand in the house. At the same time, its infrared transmittance is only 21%, which greatly reduces the heat of the sun and reduces energy consumption. Chih-Ling Huang et al. [5]developed a new energy-saving glass-silver-silica SiO2 nanostructure. This new energy-saving glass has high transmission and low reflection for visible light, and high reflection and low transmission for infrared light. The visible light transmittance reaches 80%, which saves lighting energy consumption. At the same time, its solar heat gain coefficient is 31%, and the sunshade coefficient is 0.36., which can reduce window heat loss by 90% compared with traditional glass, and it also has the advantages of light weight, no adhesion and no oxidation. Erdem Cuce et al. [6] built two test rooms for ordinary glass and new solar insulated glass curtain wall in Taiwan, and conducted experimental research on performance parameters such as ultraviolet transmission, heat insulation, power generation, indoor lighting and energy efficiency. The results show that the new solar insulated glass curtain wall has a 100% ultraviolet blocking rate. In addition, the new solar insulated glass curtain wall can block 95% of excess heat radiation. Compared with the ordinary glass curtain wall, the cooling and heating requirements of the building are reduced by 46.9% and 40.8 % respectively.
Shuai Ran et al. [7] prepared Pt-doped KxWO3 nanorods with near-infrared shielding and excellent thermal insulation properties by using solvothermal reduction method with sodium tungstate as the raw material. The effects of K/W (potassium to tungsten ratio) and Pt doping on the microstructure, morphology and transparent thermal insulation properties of KxWO3 particles were investigated. Studies have shown that KxWO3 nanorods with optimal transparency and thermal insulation properties can be prepared by introducing Pt with a molar fraction of ω(Pt)=0.1 with H2PtCl6 ethanol solution at a K/W of 0.4. This nano material is very suitable for the preparation of transparent thermal insulation film, and has broad application prospects in the field of energy-saving window glass.
In addition, some scholars have begun to study the optimization of the glass curtain wall structure to achieve energy-saving purposes. Due to the backward shading measures and the lack of design standards for buildings in China’s low latitudes, Peng Xue et al. [8] proposed an optimization process that considers the lighting performance and energy saving requirements when optimizing the window-to-wall ratio. The results show that in order to ensure the maximum vision, when the integrated awning is 1.8 meters, the upper limit of the window thickness of hotel buildings in China’s low latitudes can be set to 0.7 for east and west buildings, 0.55 for north and south buildings. Min Jung Baea et al. [9] analyzed the glass windows of eight different window frames. The results show that when the curtain wall system adopts a higher frame ratio, the heat transfer coefficient of the curtain wall increases with the increase of the window frame ratio. Moreover, the frame has a greater impact than the heat transmission of high performance glass curtain walls.
With the continuous development and expansion of the construction industry and the state’s support for green and energy-efficient buildings, the integration of landscape and energy-saving will surely become the development trend of the future architecture.
Integration of landscape and energy-saving design needs to be highly technical, policy-oriented and economical. Therefore, most of the functions of today’s architectural landscapes only serve as decorative effects, without the combination of architectural landscape design and energy-saving design. Stefano Cascone et al. [10] studied the evapotranspiration of green roofs, as well as equipment and methods for measuring plant transpiration. After analyzed and discussed the experimental results available in the existing literature. Zhang Bai et al. [11] developed a new solar-assisted cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system for improving the energy conversion efficiency. The off-design performances are investigated by deploying the proposed CCHP system to a shopping center building. The annual efficiency and the solar fraction reach 53.6% and 9.81%, respectively. This novel solar CCHP system presents a promising cost-effective performance and the system life cycle cost saving ratio reaches 2.84%.
At present, the research on energy-saving glass tends to be perfect, and it is difficult to produce qualitative improvement. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out further energy-saving renovation of curtain wall buildings from other aspects. Although the water medium glass can play a good thermal insulation function, since the water medium flows between the double-layer glass, the sealing requirement for the double-layer glass curtain wall is strict. Moreover, the long-term operation of the aqueous medium glass is prone to scale formation and affects the appearance. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the prior art, this paper proposes an innovative integrated glass curtain wall system of evaporative cooling and mechanical ventilation from the perspective of landscape energy-saving integration, which not only increases the decorativeness of the glass curtain wall building, but also reduces the energy consumption of the building.
2. Landscape Energy-Saving Integrated Water Curtain Wall System Design
The schematic diagram of the water curtain system is shown in Fig. 1. Studies have shown that the absorption of solar radiation by water film is relatively stable within a certain range of incident angle (0‒80°), and the absorption capacity becomes stronger with the increase of the thickness of the water film. The heat exchange between the air and the water film reduces the temperature of the air layer between the water film and the curtain wall.


 
Fig. 1 Principle of water curtain system


 
Fig. 2 Process of water curtain system
For glass curtain wall buildings, the system can be installed on the top of the curtain wall. The water curtain system flow chart is shown in Fig. 2. Assuming that the air temperature is 35°C, the wind speed is 0 m/s, the water temperature in the reservoir is 24°C, and the water film thickness is 2 cm, air flow rate in the air layer is 1 m/s. In this system, 1 (water, temperature 24°C, pressure 0 bar) in the reservoir is pumped into 2 (water, temperature 24°C, pressure 3 bar) of the distribution pipe on the top of the glass curtain wall by a water pump after being purified. Then spray water through the nozzle 3 (water curtain, temperature 24°C, pressure 0 bar), thereby forming a layer of water curtain, which can increase the decorativeness of the landscape, reduce the direct sunlight of the sun to the glass curtain wall, and reduce the surface temperature of the curtain wall. Then, the water sink at the bottom of the building is used to collect the 3, and use the slope of the sink to flow into the reservoir to recycle the logistics 1. Considering the evaporation of water, add a water supply device between the reservoir and the purification device, that is, directly from 4 (deep pit water, temperature 24°C, pressure 0 bar) with a make-up pump for replenishment 5 (water, temperature 24°C, pressure 3 bar). There is a 6 (air layer, temperature 32.2°C, pressure 0 bar) between the water curtain and the glass curtain wall. Most of the air in 6 is obtained by heat exchange between the 7 (outdoor atmosphere, temperature 35°C, pressure 0 bar) and the water curtain, so the water curtain plays a certain role in cooling and filtering. After sterilization, the air is changed into 8 (air, temperature 32.2°C, pressure 0.01 bar) through the induction fan, and then 9 through the air supply pipeline and the lower air supply orifice plate into the indoor. It can not only meet the indoor demand for fresh air, but also effectively reduce the room temperature, which can act as indoor fresh air, so as to reduce refrigeration energy consumption.
3. Landscape Energy-Saving Integrated Water Curtain Wall Mathematical Model
3.1   Water film mathematical model
In theoretical analysis, the water film can be treated as a geometrically uniform translucent body with multiple transmission, reflection and absorption effects on sunlight. As shown in Fig. 3, when the sun shines on a translucent film with air on both sides, the total reflectance, absorptivity, and transmittance of a translucent film to solar radiation is the sum of infinite multiples of the various components of sunlight that are reflected, absorbed, and transmitted multiple times within the film.


 
Fig. 3 Radiation mechanism of monolayer water film
The total reflectance :
where is the single layer reflection coefficient of water film, a isthe primary radiation absorption coefficient of water film, r is the primary radiation reflection coefficient of water film.
The total absorptance :
where isthe single layer absorption coefficient of water film.
The total transmittance :
where is the single layer transmission coefficient of water film.
3.2   Clear day solar radiation model
Since the landscape energy-saving integrated water curtain wall is targeted at some curved glass curtain walls, this paper considers its inclination angle with the horizontal plane and the influence of its azimuth angle on solar radiation. By comparing and analyzing the Hay model [12], the sky isotropic model [13], and the Thecilacke and Klein model [14], three kinds of slope radiation models, the Hay model calculation results are accurate and the calculation process is simple, so the calculation model uses the Hay model.
The amount of solar radiation on the inclined plane consists of three parts: direct solar radiation, scattered solar radiation, and reflected solar radiation [15]:
where HT is the hourly total solar radiation on the inclined plane, W/m2; Hb is the hourly direct solar radiation on the horizon where the inclined plane is located, W/m2; Hd is the hourly amount of solar radiation scattered from the plane where the inclined plane is located, W/m2; H is the hourly total solar radiation on the plane where the inclined plane is located, W/m2; Rb is the ratio of the hourly direct radiation from the inclined plane to the horizontal plane; is surface reflectance, If the temperature is greater than 0℃, it is 0.2, and if it is less than −5℃, it is 0.7, linear interpolation between the two [16]; β is the inclined angle of inclination, °.
The ratio of the amount of direct radiation between the inclined surface and the horizontal plane is:
where i1 is the incidence angle of sunlight on the inclined plane, °; θz is the zenith angle, °.
In the Hay model, scattered radiation from the sky on an inclined plane is considered to be heterogeneous [17], therefore, the ratio of scattered radiation on the inclined plane to that on the horizontal plane is:
where H0 is the hourly total solar radiation on the horizontal surface of the outer atmosphere, W.
3.3 Mathematical model of water curtain in clear day
Since the water curtain formed is an arc, the arc is divided into n segments for simplified calculation. Assuming that the inclination angle of the inclined plane is the same in each section, and the incidence angle on each section of the inclined plane changes with time, as shown in Fig. 4, the dynamic water curtain mathematical model is established.
The total hourly solar radiation on the surface of the whole water curtain wall is H′:
where H′ is the hourly total solar radiation of the entire water curtain wall surface without water film, W; HT (βi ) is the hourly solar radiation of the segment where the inclination angle is βi , W/m2; Si is the area of the segment where the slope inclination is βi , m2; H(βi ) is the hourly solar radiation of the segment where the slope is inclined, W.
H is the hourly solar radiation through the water curtain wall:
In this equation, H is the hourly solar radiation through the water curtain wall, W; (βi ) is the water film transmission co- efficient of the segment where the inclination angle is βi .


 
Fig. 4 Segmental diagram of water curtain
3.4   Model test


 
Fig. 5 Calculation flow chart of clear day water curtain model


 
Fig. 6 Theoretical and simulated values of hourly solar radiation with different water film thicknesses
4.4.1   Wind blows from bottom to top
When the wind blows from bottom to top, the water film with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet is analyzed, and it is only subjected to gravity G and the impact force R produced by air flow.
where G is the gravity of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area, N; w is the density of water, kg/m3; d is the thickness of the water film, m; g is acceleration of gravity, m/s2.
where R is the impact force on the water film with a thickness of d per unit area, N; a is the density of air, kg/m3; vf is air flow rate, m/s;
Therefore, the resultant force of water film with a thickness of d per unit area at nozzle outlet is:
where F is the resultant force of water film with a thickness of d per unit area at nozzle outlet, N.
Available from Newton’s second law:
where aw is the acceleration of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet, downward is positive, m/s2; mw is the water film mass with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet, kg.
That is to say, the water film obliquely throws with the acceleration as aw , the initial velocity of the nozzle as v0 , and the inclination angle with the horizontal plane as θ.


 
Fig. 11 Mechanical analysis of water film
(1) when F≤0, aw ≤0
① when θ≥0, the water film will not fall and the water film structure will be destroyed; ②when θ<0 and v sin+ awt ′=0, the water film stops falling, where t′ is the falling time, and when the horizontal range satisfies xmin <vt′cos<xmax and the vertical displacement satisfies , the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed.
(2) when F>0, aw >0
①when θ≥0, , t′=t1 +t2 , t′ is the falling time, when the horizontal range satisfies xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed; ②When θ<0 and , t′ is the falling time, when xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed.
4.4.2   Wind blows from top to bottom
When the wind blows from top to bottom, the water film having a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet is analyzed, and it is only subjected to gravity G and the impact force R produced by air flow, and the force analysis is consistent with the wind blowing up from bottom to top.
Available from Newton’s second law:
That is to say, the water film obliquely throws with the acceleration as aw , the initial velocity of the nozzle as v0 , and the inclination angle with the horizontal plane as θ.
Since the impact force of gravity and air on the water film is downward, the resultant force must be greater than 0, that is, F>0 and aw >0.
①When θ≥0, , t′=t1 +t2 , t′ is the falling time, When the horizontal range satisfies xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed. ②when θ<0, , t′ is the falling time, when xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed.
4.4.3   Wind blows from any direction
When the wind blows from any direction, the wind speed vf can be decomposed into two speeds, horizontal and vertical, assuming that the angle between the wind and the horizontal plane is ε, that is, the horizontal direction speed is vf cosε, and the vertical direction speed is vf sinε.
The water film having a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet is analyzed, it is only subjected to gravity G and the impact force Ry produced by air flow in the vertical direction,
where Ry is the component of the impact force of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area in the vertical direction, N; ε is the angle between the wind direction and the horizontal plane, °.
Therefore, the resultant force of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet in the vertical direction is:
where Ry is the resultant force in the vertical direction of the water film with a unit area thickness of d at the nozzle outlet, N.
Available from Newton’s second law:
where ay is the acceleration of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet in the vertical direction, downward is positive, m/s2
Only the impact force Rx generated by the air is received in the horizontal direction,
where Rx is the component of the impact force of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area in the horizontal direction, N.
Available from Newton’s second law:
where ax is the horizontal acceleration of the water film with a thickness of d per unit area at the nozzle outlet, and the flow direction along the nozzle outlet is positive, m/s2.
(1) When Fy≤0 , aw ≤0
① When θ≥0, the water film will not fall and the water film structure is destroyed; ②When θ<0 and vsin+ayt ′=0, the water film stops falling, t′ is the falling time, and when the horizontal range satisfies xmin <vt′cos<xmax and the vertical displacement satisfies , the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed.
(2) When Fy >0, aw >0:
①When θ≥0, , t′=t1 +t2 , t′ is the falling time. When the horizontal range satisfies xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed. ②when θ<0 and , t′ is the falling time. When xmin <vt′cos<xmax , the water film structure is not destroyed, the water curtain can operate normally, otherwise the water film structure is destroyed.
4.4.4   Summary
In summary, in order to make the water film completely cover the entire building structure, the horizontal range of the nozzle must have a minimum value xmin , and then considering the width of the reservoir, the horizontal range of the nozzle must have a maximum value xmax . Next, the angle between nozzle and horizontal plane is analyzed as θ > 0.
The motion after the water is ejected through the nozzle is a tilting motion with an altitude h from the horizontal plane and an angle θ>0 with the horizontal plane and an initial velocity of v0 . The equations of motion are as shown in Eqs. (22‒24):
where h is the height of the nozzle, m; θ is the nozzle outlet inclination angle, °; t1 is the rising time of water film per unit area, s; t2 is the falling time of water film per unit area, s; t′ is the landing time of water film per unit area, s.
The expression t of landing time can be solved by Eqs. (22‒24). Since the landing time is positive, so the horizontal range is:
where x is the range of water, m.
Limit the horizontal range to ; In the actual project, when the nozzle outlet flow velocity and the inclination angle are selected, Equation 25 can be used as the objective function, when the wind speed and direction are determined. Substituting xmin, xmax and plotting the curves separately. Each point in the region between the two curves serves as a reference for selecting a reasonable initial velocity and angle.
4.5 Synergistic relationship between air permeability and air temperature drop
Because of the difference of temperature and vapor partial pressure between air layer and water film, when air contacts the water film, the saturated air in the boundary layer of the water film mixes with the air in the air layer continuously, thus changing the air state in the air layer. In order to obtain a water film air heat transfer model which was suitable for this system, the parameters and boundary conditions of the existing theoretical model of wet curtain cooling were adjusted in this paper. The model was simplified as follows:
(1) Heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer coefficient of air and water surface, specific heat of wet air, specific heat of water and latent heat of vaporization of water were constant;
(2) The temperature distribution on the surface of water film was uniform, and the value was a constant;
(3) Lewis relationship applied to calculation;
(4) Heat transfer between air, water systems and the environment were neglected;
(5) The air close to the water film was the saturated air at the water temperature.
where T is dry bulb temperature of the main air in the wet curtain, °C; Tw is the saturated air temperature of the water film on the surface of the wet curtain paper, °C; T0 is the outdoor air temperature , °C; η is area coefficient of wet curtain; hD is mass transfer coefficient, m/s; Rg is gas constant of dry air, J/(kg∙K); Rw is gas constant of water vapor, J/(kg∙K); u is air infiltration rate, m/s.
According to Eq. (26), the air temperature curves of different air flow velocities at 33°C, 36°C and 39°C were drawn. Relevant parameters are as follows: Rg =287 J/(kg∙K); Rw =461 J/(kg∙K).
Fig. 12 shows that the temperature drop of air layer decreases with the increase of air permeation velocity, and the lower the water film temperature, the better the cooling effect.
4. Calculation Results and Discussion
4.1 Synergistic relationship between water film thickness and solar radiation intensity


 
Fig. 7 Hourly solar radiation from inclined surfaces with different water film thickness on clear days


 
Fig. 8 Daily radiation from inclined surfaces with different thickness of water film on clear days
4.2 Synergistic relationship between water curtain dip angle and solar radiation transmission of water curtain system


 
Fig. 9 All-day radiation transmission of different water curtain dip water curtain systems on clear days
4.3 Synergistic relationship between water curtain orientation and solar radiation transmission of water curtain system


 
Fig. 10 All-day radiation transmission of different water curtain dip water curtain systems on clear days
4.4 Synergistic relationship between ambient wind speed and water film structure
4.6   Case study
4.6.1 Selection of water film thickness and its effect


 
Fig. 12 Mechanical analysis of water film


 
Fig. 13 Water Curtain Segmental diagram of Ice World & Water Park Project
4.6.2 Selection of fan inlet speed and temperature drop effect
5. Conclusion
In order to promote the research progress of landscape energy-saving integrated water curtain wall system, this paper established a relatively perfect clear day water curtain wall model. The accuracy of the system was verified by software simulation. Taking Changsha ICE World & WATER Park Project as an example, the energy-saving effect of the system was analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn:
(1) The model of clear day water curtain wall took into account the changes of slope inclination, orientation and solar incidence angle with time. It had high accuracy, but the process was complicated.
(2) The thickness of water film had a great influence on the reduction of solar radiation, but as the thickness of water film increased, its effect on the attenuation of solar radiation was gradually weakened.
(3) The ambient wind speed will cause damage to the water curtain structure. In the design stage of the water curtain system, the local dominant wind direction and wind speed need to be considered to set the rotation range of the nozzle to adjust the nozzle inclination angle.
(4) Through the analysis of the actual project — ICE World & WATER Park, the system can reduce 66.8% of solar radiation, and reduce the air layer temperature by 3.9°C. The energy saving effect was remarkable and can be applied to reality.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the project Xiangjiang Happy City — Ice World & Water Park, which is constructed by Ltd of China Construction Fifth Engineering.
[1]
Energy Consumption Statistics Commission of China Association of Building Energy Efficiency. 2018 China building energy consumption research report. Construction and Architecture, 2019, 2: 26‒31. (in Chinese)
[2]
Wu J.J., Tang G.H., Wang R., Sun Y.W., Multi-objective optimization for China’s power carbon emission reduction by 2035. Journal of Thermal Science, 2019, 28(02): 184‒194.
[3]
Liang Y.H., Gong Y., Study on sunshade design of glass curtain walls. Building Science, 2004, 20(3): 8‒12. (in Chinese)
[4]
Qu J., Song J., Qin J., et al., Transparent thermal insulation coatings for energy efficient glass windows and curtain walls. Energy and Buildings, 2014, 77: 1‒10.
[5]
Huang C.L., Ho C.C., Chen Y.B., Development of an energy-saving lass using two-dimensional periodic nano-structures. Energy and Buildings, 2015, 86: 589‒594.
[6]
Cuce E., Riffat S.B., Young C.H., Thermal insulation, power generation, lighting and energy saving performance of heat insulation solar glass as a curtain wall application in Taiwan: A comparative experimental study. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 96: 31‒38.
[7]
Ran S., Liu J., Shi F., et al., Greatly improved heat-shielding performance of KxWO3, by trace Pt doping for energy-saving window glass applications. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2018, 174: 342‒350.
[8]
Xue P., Li Q., Xie J., et al., Optimization of window-to- wall ratio with sunshades in China low latitude region considering daylighting and energy saving requirements. Applied Energy, 2019, 233‒234: 62‒70.
[9]
Bae M.J., Oh J.H., Kim S.S., The effects of the frame ratio and glass on the thermal performance of a curtain wall system. Energy Procedia, 2015, 78: 2488‒2493.
[10]
Cascone S., Coma J., Gagliano A., Pérez G., The evapotranspiration process in green roofs: A review. Building and Environment, 2019, 147: 337‒355.
[11]
Zhang B., Liu Q.B., Gong L., Lei J., Application of a mid-/low-temperature solar thermochemical technology in the distributed energy system with cooling, heating and power production. Applied Energy, 2019, 253: 113491.
[12]
Hay J.E., Calculation of monthly mean solar radiation for horizontal and inclined surfaces. Solar Energy, 1979, 23(4): 301‒307.
[13]
Liu B.Y.H., Jordan R.C., The interrelationship and characteristic distribution of direct, diffuse and total solar radiation. Solar Energy, 1960, 4(3): 1‒19.
[14]
Klein S.A., Theilacker J.C., An algorithm for calculating monthly-average radiation on inclined surfaces. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 1981, 103(1): 29‒33.
[15]
Andersen P., Comments on “Calculations of monthly average insolation on tilted surfaces” by S. A. Klein. Solar Energy, 1980, 25(3): 287‒287.
[16]
Zhang H.L., Baeyens J., Degrève J., et al., Concentrated solar power plants: Review and design methodology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013, 22: 466‒481.
[17]
Hay J.E., Calculation of monthly mean solar radiation for horizontal and inclined surfaces. Solar Energy, 1979, 23(4): 301‒307.
Article and author information
Download:
GUO Pengxin1
LI Hongqiang2,4,5*
HE Changjie1
ZHENG Yingfa2
LI Shuisheng3
ZHANG Guoqiang2
Publication records
Published: Nov. 5, 2019 (Versions1
References
Journal of Thermal Science